Investing as a Post-secondary Student

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By iA Private Wealth, September 15, 2021

Apartment rented for the school year? Check. Class schedule finalized? Check. Laptop in good working order? Check. Investment portfolio optimized? Check.

If the last point seems out of place to you, you’re not alone. Most post-secondary students have many things on their mind, but investing usually isn’t one of them.

It should be. Paying bills and managing student debt are legitimate concerns, but so is planning for the future. As life progresses from school to career and possibly to marriage, home ownership and starting a family, building enough wealth to meet basic needs is always important.

Benefit from compounding

One significant advantage that young investors have is a long time horizon. When they start investing at an early age, they’ve got the power of compound growth on their side. As the value of their investments gradually rises, that growth in invested capital will grow as well, and it’s this ongoing compounding that results in accumulated wealth over time.

Also, having an extended time horizon means they can invest more aggressively than someone older. Why? Because when younger investors experience the inevitable short-term market declines, they have the time to stay invested and ride out these downturns until the markets resume their long-term upward trend.

This advantage allows younger investors to invest more of their money in stocks and equity mutual funds, which historically have generated higher returns than conservative securities like bonds and GICs. Rather than panic when markets become volatile, younger investors can remain disciplined knowing their long-term financial goals should not be impacted.

Getting started

Few post-secondary students have a lot of money laying around, but it’s no reason to put off investing. Maybe they received cash gifts for birthdays or other special occasions. Many students have part-time jobs during the school year and perhaps full-time work in the summer. Of course it makes sense to ease their debt load when possible to reduce interest charges, but earmarking even a few dollars per month for investing can help create long-term wealth.

Assuming they have some money available to invest, what can they do with those funds? They might consider a Tax-Free Savings Account (TFSA). If they’re at least 18 years old with a valid Social Insurance Number, they can open a TFSA at any qualifying financial institution in Canada. The maximum annual contribution amount is currently $6,000. The good thing is, if they don’t contribute the full amount each year, they accumulate contribution room for future years. Whatever investment growth is earned in a TFSA is completely tax free.

If they have employment income, they might consider a Registered Retirement Savings Plan (RRSP). They can get a tax deduction each year, which may be useful depending on their income level, but the main benefit is that any growth of RRSP assets is tax deferred until withdrawn, which is typically not until retirement.

If students aren’t sure what to invest in, they can conduct their own research to learn the fundamentals of investing. They may also consider working with an Investment Advisor who can guide them and be available to help with more complex financial issues as they progress through the various phases of life.

Regardless of what they choose to invest in, it’s often valuable to set up a pre-authorized contribution plan (PAC) that devotes a certain amount of money at pre-determined intervals (e.g., monthly). PACs are useful and convenient because they help investors be disciplined and automatically invest on a regular basis to build long-term wealth.

If you have an undergraduate student in your household, an iA Private Wealth Investment Advisor can help them prepare for their financial future. Speak to an advisor today.

This article is a general discussion of certain issues intended as general information only and should not be relied upon as tax or legal advice. Please obtain independent professional advice, in the context of your particular circumstances. iA Private Wealth Inc. is a member of the Canadian Investor Protection Fund and the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada. iA Private Wealth is a trademark and business name under which iA Private Wealth Inc. operates.

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Unlock the Equity in Your Home

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By iA Private Wealth, June 13, 2022

If you own a home and hold a mortgage, you’ve likely heard about a home equity line of credit, or HELOC. If you’re planning on owning a home in the near future, you’ll want to know more about this convenient way to borrow money.

What’s a HELOC?

A HELOC is technically a second mortgage, but in many respects it’s more like a revolving line of credit or a credit card. That’s because, while your bank or mortgage company may approve you for a HELOC, you’re not charged unless you withdraw funds. Unlike a credit card or even a traditional line of credit, however, the interest rate on the money you withdraw from a HELOC is quite low because it’s secured against the equity in your home.

How does it work?

There are different types of HELOCs — ones that are combined with a mortgage and ones that are guaranteed by your home but not connected to your mortgage. The amount you qualify for can vary but a good rule of thumb is that you can be approved for up to 65% of your home’s purchase price or market value.

What are the benefits and risks?

A HELOC offers a convenient way to access the equity in your home for renovations or as an emergency source of funds. And it can be a smart way to consolidate your other debts, particularly high-interest credit card debt.

When deciding whether a HELOC is right for you, a little common sense will go a long way. For instance, taking out a HELOC for big ticket expenditures like fancy cars or lavish vacations is clearly not a prudent decision. Likewise, using a HELOC for non-essential home renovations during a recession, when job security can be fragile, is also a bad call. As long as your income is sufficient and stable, and your purpose for the HELOC is sensible, the risk of falling into a debt trap is generally low.

While a HELOC’s interest rate is comparatively low, it can go up if the Bank of Canada raises rates, as it’s doing right now. And, like a mortgage, your lender expects you to make a minimum payment each month on the interest and principal you owe. So when you’re crunching the numbers and deciding if a HELOC is right for you, be sure that you’re not stretching your finances thin, as rapid rate hikes could make your monthly payments significantly higher than at the outset of the loan.

Be aware also that there are other costs associated with getting a HELOC, from home appraisal fees to legal and title search fees, among others.

Finally, before signing the dotted line, be sure to carefully read the HELOC’s terms, as they may include provisions you won’t be comfortable with. For example, in certain circumstances lenders can demand that you pay the full amount owing. And if you miss payments, your credit score can be affected and your lender may take possession of your home.

New HELOCs have been created at an accelerated rate in recent years and many experts worry that Canadians are relying too heavily on them. When interest rates rise rapidly, many homeowners may find it difficult to keep up. So it’s important to understand the risks and know your financial limits.

Want to learn more about HELOCs or other ways to borrow? Contact us today.

Women & Wealth: Growing Prosperity and Building Confidence

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By iA Private Wealth, May 24, 2022

Women’s rights have made tremendous progress throughout the decades. And now, representing more than half of Canadian bachelor’s degrees, nearly 50% of household incomes and controlling about $3 billion in financial assets, women are forging a path towards independence, equality and wealth.

But challenges remain. Women continue to earn less than men in most professions and they’re still more likely than men to be holding down low-income jobs. Many women also left the workforce during the pandemic, as they disproportionately took on the responsibility of managing their family’s schooling and childcare needs. In fact, women are more likely to take on unpaid caregiving responsibilities for family members in general.

These realities have resulted in women saving less for retirement. Couple this with the fact that women live longer — four years longer on average — and the concerning result is a longer retirement funded by a smaller nest egg.

At the same time, more women are taking control of their financial futures. They are increasingly involved in their family’s wealth and are making more decisions when it comes to wealth planning. And many women are seeking the advice of an experienced advisor to help them form a realistic view of their current finances, map out future goals and measure progress along the way. While women are becoming progressively involved, many tend to have a different perspective when it comes to investing. Women may be more likely to take a conservative approach, which is why it’s important to find an advisor who understands not only your goals when it comes to finances, but also your philosophy.

Wealth planning isn’t only about goal setting, of course. A holistic strategy can include everything from tax planning to investment and legacy planning. In the past, men took the lead on many of these decisions, but as women continue to make strides in their careers and their financial independence, they have been coming to the table with their own views on how to manage their family’s wealth.

If you’re ready to take control of your financial future but aren’t sure where to start, please reach out to with one of our Investment Advisors today. We can help clarify your objectives and set you on a path towards achieving all your short- and long-term goals.

How to Pass on the Family Cottage

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By iA Private Wealth, May 4, 2022

Canadians adore their escapes from the city. And what’s not to love? Not only is a cottage a great getaway, bringing joy to families and friends for generations, it’s also proven to be a profitable investment for many who purchased their property decades ago.

It may be hard to believe, but this cherished home away from home that has brought your loved ones together over the years can also cause strain on family relationships in the future. When you pass away, an inherited cottage often becomes a source of sibling friction as disagreements arise about how to share it, whether to sell it and what to do about the capital gains that’s accrued on it. That’s because, unlike a principal residence, which isn’t subject to capital gains, second homes are considered investment properties, and capital gains tax is owed when an estate is transferred from parents to children.

The only way to avoid the tax — and only for a finite amount of time — is to roll over the deed to a spouse, as you would with an RRSP or RRIF. That’s not possible to do with children, so eventually, taxes must be paid.

There are four main strategies for passing a secondary property like a cottage to the next generation:

Gift it now instead of later

A popular way to deal with the capital gains tax conundrum, especially if you only have one child, is to gift the cottage to them while you’re still alive. Doing so means you can pay capital gains based on the property’s value today, which makes sense if its value keeps rising.

To minimize the capital gains tax burden from the transfer, you may want to consider stretching out the gift over five years. Keep in mind that doing so might push your annual income into a higher tax bracket each year, instead of just once. And that means the government may claw back income support like Old Age Security.

Don’t forget about renovations

Capital gains tax is calculated based on the adjusted cost base of the property. That means you can count any major renovations you’ve made to the property over the years. This raises your “starting” purchase price and reduces the gain you’ve made, so you may be able to reduce your taxes. As always, it’s best to speak with an advisor and a tax professional to decide if this option makes the most financial sense.

Consider life insurance

Purchasing a life insurance policy that covers future capital gains your heirs will have to pay once you’re gone is another option. The policy may even be set up to cover other taxes — like those payable on the disposition of your RRSP, RRIF and other taxable investments. Finally, with enough life insurance, your children could also have enough to fund ongoing maintenance on the property.

Sell it

It’s worth having a frank discussion with your children about what they may want to do with the cottage after you pass on. Parents often assume their kids will want to keep it in the family, but the reality is that many children would either prefer to buy one for their own spouse and children or aren’t interested in the upkeep once the property becomes their responsibility. Another possibility is that one child may be more attached to the cottage and want to preserve its legacy while another may prefer instead to inherit some other portion of your estate.

If you decide to sell, you may choose to do so while you’re still alive or you can stipulate in your will that the property be sold after your death, with taxes and transaction costs paid by your estate and the remaining funds shared by your heirs. While selling it may be emotionally difficult for you and your family, it may also be the most straightforward solution.

Interested in finding out more? Contact us for seasoned advice on all your estate planning questions.

Stay in Control of Your Future Through Powers of Attorney

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By iA Private Wealth, April 29, 2022

Being prepared for whatever life circumstances you may experience is at the core of a comprehensive wealth plan. This includes making plans for potential mental or physical incapacity. Once your wishes are formalized, it can bring you, and your family, peace of mind knowing that your decisions will endure if you are unable to communicate them.

What is power of attorney?

Most adults are responsible for making their own decisions about key aspects of their lives, such as personal finances, health care and living arrangements. When needed they might consult family members, trusted friends or professionals with proficiency in certain fields, but generally they are in control of their own choices.

No one likes to think about the possibility of having to give up control of these responsibilities, however, if there is a significant deterioration to mental or physical health, who would you want making these decisions for you? This person (or people) will act as a substitute decision maker, and is officially called a power of attorney (POA).

A POA document specifies the decision-making authority that a person (typically referred to as the “grantor” or “donor”) gives to a third party (known as the “attorney”). Note that the attorney doesn’t need to be a lawyer, but can be if the grantor so chooses. While the attorney is legally obligated to act in good faith and in your best interests (otherwise known as “fiduciary duty”), careful thought must go into choosing this person. They will have the ability to make highly impactful decisions on your behalf.

It is important to note that a POA document is different from a will. A POA is only valid while you are alive. After death, your will dictates how your estate should be handled and distributed.

Types of POAs

Depending on your personal circumstances, you may choose to make different types of POA arrangements. The most common are:

  • POA for property. This allows the attorney to make decisions regarding your financial matters, such as managing your investments and other financial accounts, paying your bills, renewing policies, implementing estate planning strategies and selling property.
  • POA for personal care. This allows the attorney to make decisions regarding your health care, such as medical treatments, hygiene, personal safety and long-term care or other housing arrangements. It helps ensure continuity of care, guided by your principles and preferences.

A POA for property only gives the attorney powers when the grantor is mentally capable. If you want this arrangement to continue should you become mentally incapacitated, then opt for an enduring POA (also known as a continuing POA). A POA for personal care takes effect only if the grantor becomes mentally incapacitated, as determined by a thorough assessment by a qualified evaluator or medical professional.

For any POA, you have the ability to place limits on the attorney’s powers, such as restricting them from selling your home. Also note that an attorney is not allowed to designate or change beneficiaries for your registered plans or insurance policies.

Importance of beneficiary designations

Since your chosen attorney cannot designate beneficiaries, it’s important to do it while you maintain adequate mental capacity. This way, you’ll have the comfort of knowing that your assets will be distributed to the people you have specifically selected. Through your will, you may also decide how your assets are distributed (for example, it’s common to set up trust accounts for minors).

Without named beneficiaries, your assets will go to your estate and the court may decide how to allocate them. This might be a slow and expensive process, plus there’s no guarantee your assets will be distributed as you desire. It’s in everyone’s best interest to designate beneficiaries on insurance policies and registered plans like RRSPs, RRIFs and TFSAs.

Similarly, if you don’t have valid POA documents, the court will appoint someone to manage your assets if you become incapacitated, which can also be time consuming, costly and not aligned with your wishes.

Ready to incorporate POAs in your wealth plan? Contact us today.

Client Focused Reforms: Putting Clients First

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By iA Private Wealth, April 25, 2022

Finding an Investment Advisor who provides unbiased, professional advice is foundational to a successful relationship. Securities regulators recognize this important aspect of the investor experience and continue to enhance regulations that focus on building trust.

Over the years, improved disclosure, reporting and fee transparency have refined the overall client experience. In 2021, Client Focused Reforms (CFRs) were introduced to help ensure that clients are the top priority in a client-advisor relationship. As the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA) continues to implement new rules that put clients’ best interests first, we welcome these efforts to uphold a consistent and high standard of care for clients.

Conflicts of interest

Reforms implemented last year require registered dealers and the advisors who work for them to inform their clients of any conflicts of interest that may arise. The CFRs place the onus on dealers and advisors to explain in clear and straightforward language what these conflicts of interest might be and how they will address them in the best interests of their clients.

An example of a potential conflict of interest would be if an advisor is in a position to earn higher compensation for selling a certain type of product, or where the dealer might stand to receive a greater benefit, such as “proprietary” mutual funds managed and operated by the firm.

With the rollout of the CFRs, the advisor needs to prove the chosen product is truly in a client’s best interests and is most appropriate for their particular circumstances – even if a similar, lower-cost solution is available. The advisor must document this discussion and any decisions emanating from it, with justification as to why the recommended product is most appropriate. Many advisors have already been doing this in their practice, but now there’s a universal framework to formalize the process.

Suitability of investments

Advisors continue to be responsible for determining if an investment is suitable for a given client, and the CFRs help them accomplish this important task. The advisor can gain greater insights into each client through an enhanced Know Your Client (KYC) document. An advisor uses the KYC to gather an expanded range of information about a client’s financial situation, risk tolerance, time horizon and investment objectives, while making a reasonable effort to keep the KYC updated in a timely manner as a client’s circumstances change.

Also, the Know Your Product (KYP) requirement ensures that advisors maintain strong knowledge of any securities they recommend and buy/sell on behalf of their clients. Factoring into an advisor’s recommendation is the robust understanding of a product’s primary characteristics, risk potential and total costs (and how, over time, those costs may impact a client’s return on investment). The dealer firm is required to implement specific procedures and controls to properly assess and monitor any investment security available to clients.

Enhanced disclosures

Upon opening a client account, dealers and advisors must deliver enhanced information to give clients a sound understanding of their overall offering. This information includes disclosing which products and services might be available (or unavailable) to the client, how advisors are compensated, what types of costs the client may incur through their ongoing relationship, and what specific responsibilities the dealer and advisor have when serving clients and managing their accounts.

The measures contained within the CFRs help to educate clients, inform their investment decisions and keep their interests at the forefront. While it involves additional time and effort for the dealer and advisor, there isn’t any action required on the part of the investor. For iA Private Wealth, the CFRs are a welcome development as they reaffirm our longstanding commitment to meeting the highest standards of integrity, transparency and professionalism.

We’re proud to focus on our clients’ best interests as we help them achieve their financial goals. If you have any questions about these changes, reach out to your advisor directly or contact us today.